Overview of the Microgrid Concept and its Hierarchical Control Architecture

Overview of the Microgrid Concept and its Hierarchical Control Architecture
Authors : Tembo Greyard
Publication Date: 05-03-2016


Author(s):  Tembo Greyard

Published in:   International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology

License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Website: www.ijert.org

Volume/Issue:   Volume. 5 - Issue. 03 , March - 2016

e-ISSN:   2278-0181


The advent of the Smart Grid has enticed a lot of interest in the research of Distributed Generation (DG) thereby bringing into existence an intelligent electrical power distribution network. This distribution network is designed to possess desired characteristics such as reliability, security, stability and sustainability of energy. Distributed Generation (DG) employs various dispersed energy sources to generate electric power reliably and close to the load that is being served. The energy sources in DGs may include both renewable and non-renewable sources. The Microgrid (MG) concept is an integral part of the DG system and has been proven to possess the promising potential of providing clean, reliable and efficient power by effectively integrating renewable energy sources as well as other distributed energy sources. The energy sources include solar photovoltaics (PV), wind, fuel cell, micro-turbine, biomass, micro-hydro etc. Various architectures of MG are available and many more are still being developed. The architecture of an MG depends on a number of factors such as availability of renewable resources, geographical location of site, load demand etc. For effective and efficient operation, unlike the main grid, the Microgrid (MG) needs to employ special and proper control strategies. This is so because of the combination of conventional or traditional distributed energy sources and the high penetration of renewable energy sources most of which are intermittent in nature. As such, there is need for a control system that ensures proper sharing of the load among the distributed energy sources and also proper power flow between the microgrid and the main grid. The control system should be able to regulate the voltage as well as the frequency, both during islanded operations of the microgrid and grid-tied operation. This paper gives an outline of a microgrid, its general architecture and also gives an overview of the three-level hierarchical control system of a microgrid. The paper further highlights the importance of the Hierarchical control in the effective operation of the microgrid.


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