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Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals Contaminated Wastewater by the Plant Schoenoplectus Litoratus (L.) at Alasfar Lake in Alahsa, Saudi Arabia


Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals Contaminated Wastewater by the Plant Schoenoplectus Litoratus (L.) at Alasfar Lake in Alahsa, Saudi Arabia
Authors : Salim M. Gahtani Ibrahim, Samir G. Al-Solaimani, Mohamed A. Elsheikh
Publication Date: 04-07-2016

Authors

Author(s):  Salim M. Gahtani Ibrahim, Samir G. Al-Solaimani, Mohamed A. Elsheikh

Published in:   International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology

License:  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Website: www.ijert.org

Volume/Issue:   Volume. 5 - Issue. 07 , July - 2016

e-ISSN:   2278-0181

Abstract

Schoenoplectus litorius of the family Cyperaceae is an erect light green plant with hollow stems and tapering leaves one meter long with spikes, is used as a bio-remediating plant to aid in removing heavy metals from contaminated wastewater of Alasfar Lake in Saudi Arabia. S.litoralis plant accumulated heavy metals of (Cr=145.1 mg/kg), (Cu=60.15 mg/kg), (Zn=82.76 mg/kg), (Cd=0.39 mg/kg), in rhizomes, and (Cr=41.87 mg/kg), (Cu=44.19 mg/kg), (Mn=1102 mg/kg), (Cd=0.72 mg/kg) in the stem, and (Cr=205.5 mg/kg), (Cu=107.9 mg/kg), (Zn=74.99 mg/kg), (Cd=0.9 mg/kg) in the leaves and all these heavy metal concentrations are above the permissible levels suggested by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO, 2007). Absorption rate (TF) of elements from soil to plant parts (rhizome, stem , leaves) was high for Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, and P, the transfer ratio (TR) between the different plant parts was high, and is high from roots to stem and leaves as regards P, K, Mn, Cd, and high to the leaves for Cr and Cu. There was a positive correlation between water and leaves in P concentration, and between soil and leaves for Cd, between soil and stem in Mg, Mn and Cd , and between soil and rhizomes as for Pb, Cd, Mn, Ca and between rhizomes and stem in contents of Mn, Cr and Mg. Schoenoplectus litorius is recommended as a phytoremediator for removal of heavy metals from wastewater of Lake Alasfar, and the species contains high concentrations of heavy metals so animals should be kept away from grazing on it.

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